A voyage to India nowadays is a continuous social event. The passengers compose a house party, being guests of the Steamship company for the time. The decks of the steamer are like broad verandas and are covered with comfortable chairs, in which the owners lounge about all day. Some of the more industrious women knit and embroider, and I saw one good mother with a basket full of mending, at which she was busily engaged at least three mornings. Others play cards upon folding tables or write letters with portfolios on their laps, and we had several artists who sketched the sky and sea, but the majority read novels and guide books, and gossiped. As birds of a feather flock together on the sea as well as on land, previous acquaintances and congenial new ones form little circles and cliques and entertain themselves and each other, and, after a day or two, move their chairs around so that they can be together. Americans and English do not mix as readily as you might expect, although there is nothing like coolness between them. It is only a natural restraint. They are accustomed to their ways, and we to ours, and it is natural for us to drift toward our own fellow countrymen. In the afternoon nettings are hung around one of the broad decks and games of cricket are played. One day it is the army against the navy; another day the united service against a civilian team, and then the cricketers in the second-class salon are invited to come forward and try their skill against a team made up of first-classers. In the evening there is dancing, a piano being placed upon the deck for that purpose, and for two hours it is very gay. The ladies are all in white, and several English women insisted upon coming out on the deck in low-cut and short-sleeved gowns. It is said to be the latest fashion, and is not half as bad as their cigarette smoking or the ostentatious display of jewelry that is made on the deck every morning. Several women, and some of them with titles, sprawl around in steamer chairs, wearing necklaces of pearls, diamonds, emeralds and other precious stones, fit for only a banquet or a ball, with their fingers blazing with jewels and their wrists covered with bracelets. There seemed to be a rivalry among the aristocracy on our steamer as to which could make the most vulgar display of gold, silver and precious stones, and it occurs to me that these Englishwomen had lived in India so long that they must have acquired the Hindu barbaric love of jewelry. My attention was called not long ago to a cartoon in a British illustrated paper comparing the traveling outfits of American and English girls. The American girl had a car load of trunks and bags and bundles, a big bunch of umbrellas and parasols, golf sticks, tennis racquets and all sorts of queer things, and was dressed in a most conspicuous and elaborate manner. She was represented as striding up and down a railway platform covered with diamonds, boa, flashy hat and fancy finery, while the English girl, in a close fitting ulster and an Alpine hat, leaned quietly upon her umbrella near a small box, as they call a trunk, and a modest traveling bag. But that picture isnt accurate. According to my observation it ought to be reversed. I have never known the most vulgar or the commonest American woman to make such a display of herself in a public place as we witnessed daily among the titled women upon the P. and O. steamer Mongolia, bound for Bombay. Nor is it exceptional. Whenever you see an overdressed woman loaded with jewelry in a public place in the East, you may take it for granted that she belongs to the British nobility. Germans, French, Italians and other women of continental Europe are never guilty of similar vulgarity, and among Americans it is absolutely unknown.
The student of India who would at the same time be an historian, discovers to his sorrow that the land of his researches is lamentably poor in historical sources. And if within the realm of historical investigation, a more seductive charm lies for him in the analysis of great personalities than in ascertaining the course of historical development, then verily may he look about in vain for such personalities in the antiquity and middle ages of India. Not that the princely thrones were wanting in great men in ancient India, for we find abundant traces of them in Hindu folk-lore and poetry, but these sources do not extend to establishing the realistic element in details and furnishing life-like portraits of the men themselves. That the Hindu has ever been but little interested in historical matters is a generally recognized fact. Religious and philosophical speculations, dreams of other worlds, of previous and future existences, have claimed the attention of thoughtful minds to a much greater degree than has historical reality. The misty myth-woven veil which hangs over persons and events of earlier times, vanishes at the beginning of the modern era which in India starts with the Mohammedan conquest, for henceforth the history of India is written by foreigners. Now we meet with men who take a decisive part in the fate of India, and they appear as sharply outlined, even though generally unpleasing, personalities. Islam has justly been characterized as the caricature of a religion. Fanaticism and fatalism are two conspicuously irreligious emotions, and it is exactly these two emotions, which Islam understands how to arouse in savage peoples, to which it owes the part it has played in the history of the world, and the almost unprecedented success of its diffusion in Asia, Africa and Europe. About 1000 A.D. India was invaded by the Sultan Mahmud of Ghasna. With Mahmuds expedition into India begins one of the most horrible periods of the history of Hindustan. One monarch dethrones another, no dynasty continues in power, every accession to the throne is accompanied by the murder of kinsmen, plundering of cities, devastation of the lowlands and the slaughter of thousands of men, women and children of the predecessors adherents; for five centuries northwest and northern India literally reeked with the blood of multitudes. Mohammedan dynasties of Afghan, Turkish and Mongolian origin follow that of Ghasna. This entire period is filled with an almost boundless series of battles, intrigues, imbroglios and political revolutions; nearly all events had the one characteristic in common, that they took place amid murder, pillage and fire.
Seminar paper from the year 2014 in the subject History - Asia, grade: 1,3, University of Göttingen (Centre for Modern Indian Studies), course: Health and Medicine in South Asia: A Historical Perspective, 1750-1950, language: English, abstract: Even to modern scientists, certain aspects of leprosy such as its exact mode of transmission and point of onset remain a matter of research. How much greater the confusion in regard to leprosy must have been in colonial times, when Western medicine as we know it today was just beginning to evolve, is easily understood by looking at the many different, even contradictory attitudes towards the disease and the ways of dealing with its sufferers in British India. Using the example of the main institutions designated for the housing and the care of Indias lepers, the leprosy asylums, the many different motives and ideologies partaking in the medical, public and political discourse on this ancient disease shall be identified and discussed, seeking to show the many interconnections between colonial interests, public pressure, medical perspectives and missionary agenda. Did colonial intervention root in medical or rather pragmatic considerations? What religious ideologies nurtured the wish for the confinement of lepers? How much influence did Indian public opinion exert on the way leprosy was dealt with? This paper thus attempts to reveal the inner workings of the colonial state by looking at the many agents taking part in public health decisions and policies.
Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2016 im Fachbereich Geschichte - Asien, Note: 5.5, , Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Indien bildete einen Machtfaktor wa?hrend der A?ra des europa?ischen Kolonialismus. Wer Indien beherrschte, regierte u?ber ein Fu?nftel der damaligen Weltbevo?lkerung. Nicht nur die menschlichen Ressourcen in Form von gewaltigen Armeen und Bauern standen zur Verfu?gung. Das Eldorado fanden die Briten nicht in Form von verborgenem Gold in den Dschungeln von Su?damerika, sondern in Indien mit seinen riesigen Mengen an Menschen und Land, das den solange herbeigesehnten finanziellen und steuerlichen Segen bringen wu?rde. Die Grossma?chte rissen sich um dieses Potenzial. Die Portugiesen waren die ersten, die Handelsschiffe zur Neuentdeckung von Land und zu Gru?ndungen von Kolonien ru?steten. Die Spanier wollten ku?rzere Handelsrouten nach Indien finden und entdeckten durch Zufall Amerika. Die Holla?nder verwalteten bereits dutzende von befestigten Anlagen in Indien und die Franzosen hatten sich durch geschickte Politik grossen Einfluss in Indien erarbeitet. Den unbedeutenden Briten der East India Company schenkte man keine Beachtung. Welche Umsta?nde ermo?glichten der englischen East-India-Company aber ab Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts de facto eine Alleinherrschaft auf dem indischen Subkontinent zu etablieren? Wie konnten sie sich als Aussenseiter gegen die ma?chtigeren portugiesischen, holla?ndischen und franzo?sischen Indien-Gesellschaften behaupten? Welche historischen Prozesse fu?hrten schliesslich dazu, dass die Company zur indischen Territorialmacht aufstieg? Wie wirkte die duale Funktion eines profitorientierten Handelsunternehmens und eines expansiven milita?rischen Verwaltungsapparates auf die Struktur der Company aus und wie pra?gte die Bu?rde der Diwani den spa?teren Verlauf der Company? Ich habe meine Arbeit in drei Teile geteilt. Im ersten Teil gehe ich auf die Geschichte des Mogulreiches ein und wie es zerfiel. Im zweiten Teil gehe ich auf die Handelsaktivita?ten der East India Company ein, wie sie sich gegen die ma?chtigen Handelsrivalen hatte durchsetzen ko?nnen und wie sie den Aufstieg zur Territorialmacht gemeistert hatte. Im dritten Teil untersuche ich, welche Auswirkungen der Aufstieg zur Territorialmacht auf die Company und seine Umgebung zur Folge hatte.
Discusses the production and circulation of animal narratives in colonial India in order to investigate the constructs of animals played into a variety of forms of othering that took place in England during its imperial venture.
This collaborative volume? discusses the One Belt One Road, or the New Silk Road, initiative of Chinese President Xi Jinping from the perspectives of the Belt and Road countries. This initiative has been viewed as a re-globalization drive by China in the backdrop of financial crisis of the West and the latters increasingly protectionist tendencies of late. Rather than rebalancing towards a certain region, this is supposed to be Chinas global rebalancing aimed at inclusiveness and a win-win partnership. The initiative has raised hopes as well as suspicions about Chinas goals and intentions; that is, whether this is in sync with Chinas foreign policy goals, such as multipolarity, no hegemonic aspirations, and common security, or if this is an antidote to the U.S. foreign policy goals in the region, and Chinas ambition to realizing its long-term vision for Asian regional and global order. In this volume, a galaxy of eminent academics from India, China, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Germany and Southeast Asia have critically analysed every aspect of this mammoth project, including the six major economic corridors identified by China for policy coordination, infrastructure connectivity, unimpeded trade, monetary circulation, and people to people exchanges. The authors have interpreted Chinas peripheral, regional as well as global diplomacy both over land and sea. This topical volume is of interest to scholars and students of Asian studies, China studies, Asian history, development studies, international relations and international trade. Professor B. R. Deepak (???) was trained in Chinese history and India-China relations at the Peking University and Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing, at Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi and University of Edinburgh, UK. He has been the Nehru and Asia Fellow at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing. Dr. Deepaks publications include India and China: Foreign Policy Approaches and Responses (2016), India and China 1904-2004: A Century of Peace and Conflict (2005); India-China Relations in first half of the Twentieth Century (2001); India-China Relations: Future Perspectives (co ed. 2012); India-China Relations: Civilizational Perspective (2012) China: Agriculture, Countryside and Peasants (2010); and Confucius Sukti Sangrah (The Analects of Confucius) (2016); The author has been a visiting professor at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Tianjin Foreign Studies University, Beijing Language University, China, Doon University, Dehradun India, and Teaching Fellow at the Scottish Centre of Chinese Studies in the University of Edinburgh, UK.
Seminar paper from the year 2017 in the subject History - Asia, University of Peshawar (Pakistan Study Centre), course: M.Phill, language: English, abstract: The Khilafat Movement was the first ripple in the stagnant ocean of Muslim politics in India. The movement combined them as a nation and gave them a good lesson of unity. Seeing the opportunity, Mahatma Gandhi quickly affiliated himself with the Khilafat movement. The Khilafat movement enabled Gandhi to spread his non-cooperation movement in the whole country of India. One byproduct of the Khilafat movement was the Hijrat movement. The Hijrat movement failed, affecting the financial condition of Muslims badly, but conveying their unstinted love for Islam. The Khilafat movement was unable to achieve its targets, but the political activity it created helped Muslims to organize themselves as a nation and to work systematically in the upcoming movement of independence from India.
Cunoscut alpinist, austriacul Heinrich Harrer este invitat în 1939 s? participe la o expedi?ie german? de identificare a unei noi c?i de acces pe muntele Nanga Parbat din India. Izbucnirea primului r?zboi mondial îi împiedic? îns? pe membrii expedi?iei s? se întoarc? în Europa. Transfera?i dintr-un lag?r în altul, ei pl?nuiesc s? evadeze ?i s? mearg? în Tibet. Dintre to?i, doar Heinrich Harrer ?i prietenul s?u Peter Aufschnaiter reu?esc, dup? o c?l?torie lung? ?i epuizant?, s? ajung? în Lhasa, capitala Tibetului. Heinrich Harrer a devenit chiar prietenul ?i înv???torul lui Dalai Lama, pe care l-a înso?it în India atunci când Tibetul a fost invadat de China.
Using previously unexplored archives from colonial institutions and individuals, and primary materials produced by the Burmese Chinese, this comprehensive study investigates over a century of history of the Burmese Chinese under British colonial rule. Due to the peculiar position of Burma in the British imperial world and the Southeast Asian Chinese network, the Chinese community had a unique experience in a Southeast Asian colony governed by Europeans with an India-based system. This book reveals, through everyday life experience, prominent community figures, and milestone events, the internal rivalry and integration among different regional groups within the community, and the general impressions it left in contemporary observations and communal memories. The book also traces historical roots of some unsolved ethnic issues in present-day Myanmar. Yi Li received her PhD in history at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, and was a Postdoctoral Fellow at the Nanyang Technological University in Singapore between 2014 and 2015. Her research interests include modern Southeast Asia and Chinese diaspora, with a particular focus on migration and colonial history.
Seminar paper from the year 2011 in the subject History - Asia, grade: 1,7, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, language: English, abstract: This paper provides an overview of the current situation of school education in India while its main part will focus on major problems the education system is facing. Firstly, the paper gives information on the historical background on the education system in the Republic which helps to understand the present-day schooling system which is described in more detail in the second part of the paper. Subsequently, the paper focuses on major issues the schooling system is facing nowadays and places them when possible against the achievements and problems of other BRIC economies. Following this, an outline about major public initiatives that are trying to tackle prevalent problems in the schooling system is presented.