In the summer of 1979, at a time when the viability of the Islamic Republic of Iran was being widely questioned in the Western media and the historical background of the revolution that had led to its establishment was largely unknown, Hamid Algar delivered four lectures on the Islamic Revolution at the Muslim Institute in London. In clear and concise fashion, he examined the historical links between Iran and Shia Islam; the life an personality of Imam Khomeini, leader of the Islamic Revolution; the career and ideas of Ali Shariati, religious intellectual; and the course of the events that in little more than a year led to the overthrow of one of the most deeply entrenched dictatorships in the Muslim world. Now reissued in substantially revised form, the text of these lectures remains a useful introduction to the revolution, arguably the most important event in modern Muslim history. New translations made by the author from the writings of Imam Khomeini and Ali Shariati enhance the utility of the work.
Skript aus dem Jahr 2012 im Fachbereich Geschichte - Asien, Universität Zürich, Veranstaltung: Master of Advanced Studies in Applied History, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Diese Vorlesung untersucht den weiteren Kontext der iranischen Revolution von 1978/79: Einerseits die Revolution als Konsequenz der Modernisierung des Landes, andererseits die Revolution als nichtwestliches Phänomen in einem von westlichen Konzepten und Ideologien geprägten Kalten Krieg. Die Untersuchung stellt die iranischen Modernisierung in Verbindung zur Modernisierung in anderen Ländern beziehungsweise zur forcierten Modernisierung der nichtwestlichen Welt angesichts des Kolonialismus. Im zweiten Teil der Untersuchung wird dann die Entwicklung der Islamischen Republik Iran bis zum Tod Khomeinis und zum Ende des Iranisch-Irakischen Kriegs näher untersucht.
Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2012 im Fachbereich Geschichte - Asien, Note: 2,0, Universität zu Köln (Ostasiatisches Seminar), Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Die Kulturrevolution (KR) entstand als Antwort Maos auf den liberalen Kurs, den die Politik nach dem Großen Sprung verfolgte, um China wirtschaftlich zu stabilisieren. Er befürchtete eine Rückkehr der chinesischen Gesellschaft zum Kapitalismus und initiierte eine große Kampagne zur Mobilisierung der Massen. Durch Revolution der Gesellschaft wollte er die Schaffung eines neuen Menschen und einer neuen Welt erreichen. Eine Rote Garde ist ein Zusammenschluss von Schülern oder Studenten zu einer Mao Treue gelobenden Wehr. Ab Ende Juni 1966 ersetzten die Roten Garden quasi die Kommunistische Jugendliga (KJL) und entwickelten sich ab August zum wichtigsten Instrument Maos im Kampf gegen von ihm unerwünschte Elemente innerhalb der Partei. In dieser Arbeit wird der Frage nachgegangen, inwieweit die 16 Punkte des 11. Plenums des Zentralkomitees (ZK) die Eskalation der Rotgardistenbewegung begünstigt haben und welche zusätzlichen Faktoren eine Rolle spielten.
Suppressed in Iran during the reign of the Shah, this book for the first time in a careful, annotated translation was published after the Islamic Revolution. It is a strong and emotional statement by an Iranian intellectual deeply concerned with what he saw as his countrys succumbing to A Plague from the West or Occidentosis. Offering observations, insights, reasons for pride in Irans past and culture, and critical analyses of the Western role in the world. Jalal Al-e-Ahmad expresses many of the concerns that agitated the intelligentsia during the two decades before the Islamic Revolution.
The student of India who would at the same time be an historian, discovers to his sorrow that the land of his researches is lamentably poor in historical sources. And if within the realm of historical investigation, a more seductive charm lies for him in the analysis of great personalities than in ascertaining the course of historical development, then verily may he look about in vain for such personalities in the antiquity and middle ages of India. Not that the princely thrones were wanting in great men in ancient India, for we find abundant traces of them in Hindu folk-lore and poetry, but these sources do not extend to establishing the realistic element in details and furnishing life-like portraits of the men themselves. That the Hindu has ever been but little interested in historical matters is a generally recognized fact. Religious and philosophical speculations, dreams of other worlds, of previous and future existences, have claimed the attention of thoughtful minds to a much greater degree than has historical reality. The misty myth-woven veil which hangs over persons and events of earlier times, vanishes at the beginning of the modern era which in India starts with the Mohammedan conquest, for henceforth the history of India is written by foreigners. Now we meet with men who take a decisive part in the fate of India, and they appear as sharply outlined, even though generally unpleasing, personalities. Islam has justly been characterized as the caricature of a religion. Fanaticism and fatalism are two conspicuously irreligious emotions, and it is exactly these two emotions, which Islam understands how to arouse in savage peoples, to which it owes the part it has played in the history of the world, and the almost unprecedented success of its diffusion in Asia, Africa and Europe. About 1000 A.D. India was invaded by the Sultan Mahmud of Ghasna. With Mahmuds expedition into India begins one of the most horrible periods of the history of Hindustan. One monarch dethrones another, no dynasty continues in power, every accession to the throne is accompanied by the murder of kinsmen, plundering of cities, devastation of the lowlands and the slaughter of thousands of men, women and children of the predecessors adherents; for five centuries northwest and northern India literally reeked with the blood of multitudes. Mohammedan dynasties of Afghan, Turkish and Mongolian origin follow that of Ghasna. This entire period is filled with an almost boundless series of battles, intrigues, imbroglios and political revolutions; nearly all events had the one characteristic in common, that they took place amid murder, pillage and fire.
The Meiji Restoration of 1868 is one of the most astonishing political events of the modern era, yet it doesnt fit easily with Western precedents of mass mobilization and social transformation. This book challenges some of the preconceptions that have hindered the Restoration being understood on its own terms.
This book examines transformation of political and religious spheres in Iran from the start of the Qajar period to the dramatic post-election crisis of 2009. It challenges dominant scholarly assumptions about the influence of Shiism in Iranian culture and the role of religious elites. Behrooz Moazami is Assistant Professor of Middle Eastern History at Loyola University New Orleans, USA.
This book provides a fresh perspective on the origins of the confrontation between the US and Iran. It demonstrates that, contrary to the claims of Irans leaders, there was no instinctive American hostility towards the Revolution, and explains why many assumptions guiding US policy were inappropriate for dealing with the new reality in Iran.
This book constitutes the first comprehensive retrospective on one hundred years of post-dynastic China and compares enduring challenges of governance in the period around the collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1911 to those of contemporary China. The authors examine three key areas of domestic change and policy adaptation: social welfare provision, local political institutional reform, and social and environmental consequences of major infrastructure projects. Demonstrating remarkable parallels between the immediate post-Qing era and the recent phase of Chinese reform since the late-1990s, the book highlights common challenges to the political leadership by tracing dynamics of state activism in crafting new social space and terms of engagement for problem-solving and exploring social forces that continue to undermine the centralizing impetus of the state. Jean-Marc F. Blanchard is Distinguished Professor, School of Advanced International and Area Studies, East China Normal University, China, and Executive Director of the Mr. & Mrs. S.H. Wong Center for the Study of Multinational Corporations, United States. His research emphasizes foreign investment in and from China, Chinese foreign economic policy, and multinational corporations. Kun-Chin Lin is University Lecturer in the Department of Politics and International Studies and Director of the Centre for Rising Powers, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom. His research covers the political economy of China, transport infrastructure and energy policies, industrial policy and regulation, fiscal federalism, maritime governance, and regionalism in Asia.
Bringing together the most recent research on the Cultural Revolution in China, musicologists, historians, literary scholars, and others discuss the music and its political implications. Combined, these chapters, paint a vibrant picture of the long-lasting impact that the musical revolution had on ordinary citizens, as well as political leaders. Laurence Coderre, University of California, Berkeley, USA Dai Jiafang, Central Conservatory of Music, China Barbara Mittler, University of Heidelberg, Germany Lau Sze Wing, Chinese University of Hong Kong, China Rowan Pease, Independent Scholar, China Nancy Yunhwa Rao, Rutgers University, USA Ban Wang, Stanford University, USA John Winzenburg, Hong Kong Baptist University, China Chuen-Fung Wong, Macalester College, USA